Chapter 19: Managing External Forces

Chapter Summary:

In this chapter, we explore factors outside of marketers’ control but that play a vital role in shaping an organization’s marketing strategies and tactics.  As we will see, external forces present both opportunities and threats.  Each force holds the potential to alter how an industry conducts its business and how individual marketing organizations make decisions.  Our coverage includes in-depth evaluation of seven key external forces: demographics, economic conditions, governmental environment, influential stakeholders, cultural and societal change, innovation, and competitors.

Key Issues:

  • What are External Forces?
  • The External Forces Facing Marketing
  • Demographics
  • Economic Conditions
  • Governmental Environment
  • Influential Stakeholders
  • Cultural and Societal Change
  • Innovation
  • Competitors

Links to Cited References:

(note: Some links may no longer be active, if this is the case check Accessing Marketing Stories for hints on accessing.)

  1. Olivarez-Giles, N., “Amazon Launches College Textbook Rentals Program,” Los Angeles Times, July 19, 2011.
  2. Stambor, Z., “Smarter Service,” Internet Retailer, March 1, 2011.
  3. Byron, E., “The Just-in-Time Consumer,” Wall Street Journal, November 23, 2010.
  4. Lifsher, M., “Amazon Won’t Collect Sales Tax; Cuts Off California Affiliates,” Los Angeles Times, June 30, 2011.
  5. Gregory, S., “Congress Tells Commercials to Quiet Down,” Time, December 15, 2010.,8599,2037066,00.html
  6. Helft, M., “Charges Settled Over Fake Reviews on iTunes,” New York Times, August, 26 2010.
  7. Povoledo, E., “Behind Venice’s Ads, the Restoration of Its Heritage,” New York Times,  September 18, 2010.
  8. “Mass Mingling,”, June-July 2010.
  9. Ackerman, A., “P&G Shapes the Store, Consumer Goods Technology, September 16, 2011.
  10. Steiner, C., “Six Ways to Spy On the Competition,” Forbes, May 24, 2010.
  11. Helm, B., “How to Use Competitive Intelligence to Gain an Advantage,” Inc. Magazine, April 2011.
  12. Lidsky, D., “The Brief but Impactful History of YouTube,” Fast Company, February 1, 2010.
Chapter 20: Marketing Planning and Strategy
Chapter 18: Setting Price