Message Credibility: High vs. Low

The perceived control of the message can influence the target market’s perception of message credibility. For example, many customers viewing a comparative advertisement in which a product is shown to be superior to a competitor’s product may be skeptical about the claims since the company with the superior product is paying for the advertisement.

Yet, if the same comparison is mentioned in a newspaper article it may be more favorably viewed since readers may perceive the author of the story has possessing an unbiased point-of-view.

Message Control: Total vs. Minimal
Cost Assessment: Exposure vs. Action